Human papillomavirus (HPV) leads to the development of epithelium of the skin, mucous membranes of the anogenital region and upper respiratory tract. Less commonly affects the internal organs - esophagus, bronchi, rectum, bladder. As a result of the activity of the virus, various typesNeoplasms are formed. Some of them are quite benign in nature, and some are prone to cancerous tumors. In what cases do papillomas require special attention and removal? The article will tell about it.
route of infection
Infection occurs after contact with a virus carrier as well as a sick person or animal. It is worth noting that an infected person may completely lack clinical manifestations of papillomatosis. The virus enters the human body through microscopic damage to the skin or mucous membranes. For the development of an infectious process, a single viral particle is sufficient. The virus is able to maintain its viability in the environment. That is why self-infection is also possible during hygiene procedures and in everyday life (shaving, waxing, skin combing, self-injection). The main public for transmission of infection to baths, swimming pools, gyms, etc. Considered a breeding ground. A large number of diseases have been reported in school children. The newborn can become a carrier of human papillomavirus infection when it passes through the mother's birth canal.
types of hpv
Currently, scientists have identified about 180 types of HPV, among them 29 strains are considered oncogenic. Based on oncogenic potential, they are divided into viruses:
- low degree of oncoactivity (types 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81),
- Average degree of oncoactivity (types 26, 31, 33, 35, 51, 52, 53, 58, 66)
- High degree of oncoactivity (16, 18, 39, 45, 56, 59, 68. 73, 82).
According to the latest data, one or another strain of the human papillomavirus can be found in the blood of about 80% of the world's population. However, this does not mean that all infected people have papillomatosis. What factors provoke the development of the disease?
immunity and papilloma
Why does the virus disappear from the body of some people without a trace, in others it remains for life without any consequences, and in others it leads to the formation of papillomas? HPV is an infection that is quite capable of suppressing the immune system. In healthy people and virus carriers, a strong immune system is observed that suppresses the multiplication of a foreign agent. The specific role of cellular immunity has been confirmedIt inhibits the persistence of the virus at its own level (the ability to remain active for a long time outside the acute phase), and in some cases contributes to the regression of lesions. Spontaneous regression of papillomatosis occurs within six months. However, Not everyone's body's defense is at such a high level, and then latent HPV infection turns into an open (manifested) form. Papillomas are formed under the influence of factors such as:
- promiscuous sex life, frequent change of partners;
- Contact with a partner with a history of genital papillomatosis;
- the presence of concomitant sexually transmitted infections;
- Vitamin deficiency, immunodeficiency conditions in atopic dermatitis, pregnancy, AIDS;
- frequent colds and SARS;
- hormonal contraception;
- autoimmune diseases;
- Smoking and alcohol.
The skin, which has a tendency to damage or inflammation, becomes a powerful provoking factor, it ceases to perform a protective function. Therefore, people with inflammatory skin diseases (acne, rashes), eczema, dermatitis, psoriasisis at risk.
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is the most common benign tumor of the larynx. In the respiratory tract, papillomas occur in any area - from the nasopharynx to the lung parenchyma. But it most often attacks the mucous membrane of the larynx. Severity of the disease The narrowest areaIt is determined by the presence of an increase in cancer, which contributes to asphyxia, up to asphyxia. In adults, it is considered an obligate pre-cancer because of the high degree of malignancy (degeneration into a malignant tumor). The symptom is usually hoarseness, which later develops into loss of voice. The patient is able to speak in a whisper. In the first stage, the manifestation of respiratory papillomatosis is sometimes mistaken for acute laryngitis. Therefore, without endoscopic examination it is impossible to prescribe treatment. Various physiotherapy procedures on the larynx area lead to the rapid development of papillomas.
Warts are benign epidermal growths that are mainly encountered by children and adolescents. They develop on the face, hands, neck, often causing a lot of emotional problems to their owners. However, more than 70% of this typePapillomas 1. 5 disappear without a trace within 5 - 2 years. Therefore, doctors resort to their removal only in extreme cases, because with the cessation of hormonal changes, it is quite possible that the body on its ownWill face HPV infection. Additional risk factors in childhood are stress associated with passing studies and exams, overwork, lack of sleep, malnutrition, delicate skin in infants, acne in adolescents.
Is it necessary to remove papillomas on the skin?
Some neoplasms degenerate into malignant ones. This process cannot be ignored if one is attentive to oneself. It is necessary to sound the alarm if one of the symptoms is found:
- papilloma changes in size and configuration (it grows rapidly, the edges are blurred, additional growths and seals are formed);
- the color of the neoplasm changes to darkening;
- gets involved in the inflammatory process, the skin flakes, cracks, oozes;
- pain appears.
All of the above are indications for the removal of growths. If the papilloma is located in places accessible to daily injury (on the neck, armpits, in the groin area, etc. ), then it is also worth resorting to a radical way of solving problems. Frequent grazing and scrubbing can trigger the oncological process, and also contribute to the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms.
Methods for removing neoplasms
Among the destructive methods of treatment of skin growths are divided into:
- chemical (trichloroacetic acid 80-90% and other drugs);
- physical (plasma coagulation, cryodestruction, laser therapy, electrosurgery).
If removal is expected in adolescents or pregnant women, only laser therapy is used. After destruction, the use of local antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs is indicated.
But the main method of eliminating laryngeal papillomas is endolaryngeal surgery under anesthesia using either microinstrument or surgical laser, after which stable remission is recorded in only about a third of patients. In practice, a combined approach is used. is: additional cryodestruction is performed (with a localized form of the disease), local antitumor drugs are prescribed. The most common is inhalation with a special solution.